NAME: _________________________________________________________  I.D.# _______________________

1.     Define Metabolism:


2.     During photosynthesis, solar is trapped and transformed into _____________________________________.

        Proteins are synthesized at the ________________________ inside of the cell.

3, 4. List:

        a.   the beginning gas that is needed to facilitate photosynthesis: __________________________

        b.   the pigment that is needed to facilitate photosynthesis: _____________________________

        c.   the particular wavelengths of list that best facilitate photosynthesis: ____________________

        d.   one of the end products of the light reaction of photosynthesis: ____________________

        e.  the initial end product that is formed during the dark reaction of photosynthesis: _______________________

5.     Indicate what sub-unit molecules are needed to synthesize the following macromolecules:

        a.   proteins: _______________________________

        b.   carbohydrates: _____________________________________

        c.   nucleic acids: _______________________________________

6.     What general types of enzymes facilitate cell synthesis activities? ______________________________

        What general types of enzymes facilitate cell respiration activities? _____________________________

7.     If a cell has a chloroplast, this means that the cell is capable of facilitating photosynthesis. 

        If a cell has mitochondria, this means that the cell is capable of facilitating ___________________________

8.     List the three end products of cell chemical respiration:

        a. ______________________   b. _________________________   c. __________________________

9.     As a result of glycolysis, ______________________________________ is produced. 

        Where does glycolysis occur in a cell?  ___________________________________

10.   During the extracellular decomposition in humans, list an enzyme that is active in each of the following phases:

        a.  salivary:  ______________________________

        b.  gastric:   ______________________________

        c.  intestinal:  ______________________________

11.   Is any type of living cell capable of using solar energy directly?  Why/Why not ?


12,13. Indicate if the following are produced by both green plant and animal cell types:  (Answer YES or NO)

        a.  PGAL:          ______________________      d.  ATP:   ______________

        b.  pyruvic acid:  ______________________      e.  sugars and starches:  _______________

        c.  CO2 and O2:  ______________________      f:  O2:      ______________

14.   List two cell tasks that are facilitated by chemical energy:

        a.  __________________________________    b.  ________________________________

15.   The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle occurs in the ______________________________ (organelle).

        After the cycle has been completed, _____________________________ is produced.

16.   After the electron transport system has been completed during respiration, ___________________ is produced.

        _______________________________  is produced.

        ____________________________________ enzymes (type) are used during Glycolysis, Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

       and the Electron Transport System.

17.   How does a physical trait differ from a physiological trait?

18.   Cite one distinguishing difference between Mitosis and Meiosis.

19.   List a normal human karyotype:

        List an abnormal human karyotype:

20.   Indicate if the following are indicative of Mitosis, Meiosis, or both Mitosis and Meiosis: 
        Using the following key:  Mitosis = A     Meiosis = B     Both = C

        a.  chromosomes are involved:  _____________

        b.  occurs only in the cells of reproductive organs of plants and animals:  ___________

        c.  2N cells are produced:  ____________

        d.  N cells are produced:  ____________

        e.  begin with a 2N cell: ___________

        f:  ten phases are involved:  ____________

21.   List the exact number of chromosomes that are found in each of the following types of human cells:

        brain:  _________________   skin:  ___________________   gamete:  __________________

22.   List a human sex-linked trait:

23.   List a specific plant trait:  ____________________________________________

        List a dominant human trait that was assessed in the laboratory:  _______________________

24.   In order for the mathematical ratios of the Punnett Square to be valid in F2 what conditions must prevail at the outset
        of the test cross?


25.   Which of the following represent a homozygous pair of genes?

        BB,  Bb,   BO,   bo       ______________________

26.   In a test cross of 100 flowers , R-red, dominant; r-white, recessive; with P1=RR x rr, how many of the flowers in the F1
        will be red?   __________

27.   Exactly what is wrong with the hemoglobin molecule in Sickle Cell Anemia patients?

28.   Cite one difference between DNS and RNA?

29.   What are the nitrogen bases that constitute the nucleotide sub-unit of the DNA molecule?

30.   How can a mutation occur

31.   How does DNA determine the Genetic Code?

32.   How does DNA determine the Triplet Code?

33.   What is a genome?